In recent years, under the vigorous promotion of relevant national policies, China's new energy automotive industry usher in explosive growth, has become the world's largest new energy automotive market. However, as a large number of new energy vehicles are put into the market, the issue of recovery and utilization of used batteries also arouses widespread concern in the industry. Data show that the domestic power battery will reach the end of the peak around 2020, the total scrapped up to 120,000 to 170,000 tons, while in 2016 the actual recycling less than 10,000 tons. Due to the positive battery materials, electrolyte improper handling of the environment caused huge pollution, at the same time, our country must also be through recycling to ease the serious external dependence on cobalt and other scarce metals. Therefore, the recovery of power battery will become the key to the development of new energy vehicles in China.
The first battery recovery GB implementation
December 1, "Motorcycle Battery Recycling Disassembly Specification" (hereinafter referred to as "Dismantling Specification") was officially implemented, which is proposed by the Ministry of Industry and the first national standards for power battery recycling, clearly pointed out that recycling Solutions enterprises should have the relevant qualifications to further ensure the safety of battery power, environmental protection and efficient recycling.
"Dismantling norms" on the recovery of used batteries power safety, operating procedures, storage and management and other aspects of the stringent requirements to a certain extent, solve the development of industrial problems, regulate the recovery of automotive power batteries in China and Dismantling, professional technology and battery recovery system. According to report, from February 1, 2018 onwards, "vehicle power battery recycling I can detect" three new national standard battery will also be officially implemented. As Yu Haijun, vice president of Guangdong Bangpu Recycling Technology Co., Ltd., one of drafters of "Dismantling Specification" said that although the standard system of battery recycling industry is still not perfect, the standards development work is being accelerated. With the construction of a more perfect national standard system, the disordered state of power battery recycling and echelon utilization is expected to change.
Recently, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Division of Energy-saving and Comprehensive Utilization and Equipment Industry Division in Beijing held a seminar on the recycling of new energy vehicles power batteries to study the promotion of new energy vehicles battery recovery work. Li Li, inspector of the Department of Energy Saving and Comprehensive Utilization, said that pushing forward the recycling of power batteries for new energy vehicles not only helps to protect the environment and social safety and enhance the level of resource recycling, but also helps to promote the healthy development of China's new energy automotive industry. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology together with the relevant departments have drafted the "Interim Measures for the Management of Power Battery Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Vehicles", organized the preparation of the pilot implementation plan, carried out the development of relevant technical standards, the establishment of a renewable energy vehicle battery recovery traceability MIS. He stressed that all local industrial and information authorities should attach great importance to and strengthen overall planning and coordination, in light of the actual situation in the region, encourage and support car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and enterprises to comprehensively strengthen the close collaboration and build a new energy vehicle battery Recycling system, and actively promote the exploration of a strong, diversified and replicable recycling model.
Recycling market will peak in 2020
According to relevant agencies statistics, about 2020, China's total battery scrap up to 120,000 to 170,000 tons. The recovery market created by the recovery of cobalt, nickel, manganese, lithium, iron and aluminum and other metals from used lithium batteries will surpass 5.3 billion yuan in 2018 and over 10 billion yuan in 2020. The market of used lithium batteries in 2023 Will reach 25 billion yuan. This shows that China's power battery recycling market is very broad.
Although many companies want to recycle car batteries and are trying to profit from the recycling of used car batteries in various ways, standardized recycling is difficult due to the many different chemical processes used in lithium-ion batteries on electric vehicles. Recently held in Shantou, 2017 lithium battery Davos Forum, the industry experts and scholars on the battery recycling technology route also take a different view. Huizhou billion latitude Lithium Power Co., Ltd. Huang Hongliang, vice president of marketing, power system division introduced the current battery has two recovery modes: one is the use of echelon, one is re-made after the dismantling of lithium batteries raw materials. Wong Hung-liang that the use of the ladder is not realistic, he advocated the ternary battery recycling, from which extracted nickel, cobalt, manganese and even copper and aluminum raw materials.
Far East Foster New Energy Co., Ltd. Deputy General Manager Cai Qiang is optimistic about the use of echelon mode. "Because the echelon recycling of higher unit price, the corresponding energy storage, low-speed electric vehicles and other demand market is growing rapidly, the demand for the power of the screening down is very large." He believes that 2018 ~ 2020 battery recovery is relatively large . However, after 2025, although the overall demand for automotive batteries is on the rise, there is not necessarily a substantial increase in the amount recovered, as the quality of the batteries is on the rise. "The future should not be sustained and explosive growth, it should be phased growth."
Central South University, Professor Tang Yougen believes that the use of erection is only a part of recycling or can not be said that after the erection of the use of the thrown away, and ultimately to disassemble the application, and disassemble the application will return to harmless, resource-based, So still have to make breakthroughs in the recycling technology, the waste batteries into valuable things.
Yu Haijun that the existing global power battery recycling technology route more from a technical point of view, there is no way to fully do the battery recycling process, the need for a variety of processes and a combination of technologies.
In February 2016, five ministries and commissions such as the NDRC released the Technical Policy on Recovery and Utilization of Power Battery for Electric Vehicles (hereinafter referred to as "Technology Policy") ("Technical Policy"), but this is only a guide document and no punitive provisions are made. Relevant sources said that at present, China's electric vehicle battery retention is still relatively small, the relevant recycling system has not been effectively established, recycling technology is not yet mature technology, the temporary should not be mandatory management.
According to the "technical policy", in the system, the state encourages enterprises to adopt incentives such as deposits, repurchase and trade-in to improve the motivation of consumers to hand over used batteries. The state will explore the use of waste power batteries into the "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Recovery Fund" collection range. In terms of incentive measures, the state will provide support to R & D, equipment import and other aspects of cascade utilization enterprises and recycling enterprises in the existing capital channels and encourage enterprises to continuously improve their technological level, conserve resources and protect the environment. In technology research and development, the state supports the research and development of technologies and equipment for the recovery and utilization of power batteries, encourages the use of waste power battery recycling enterprises, cascade utilization enterprises, and recycling enterprises to continuously develop and promote new technologies. In international cooperation, the state will encourage international exchanges and cooperation in the field of battery recycling of electric vehicles, support the common development and harmonization of national standards and support the construction of demonstration projects of international advanced level.
Suggest that the state establish a clear reward and punishment mechanism
At present, there are some outstanding problems such as low professional standards, poor safety, low barriers to entry, and unscrupulous dismantling in domestic power battery recycling enterprises. First, the relevant technical specifications are not yet perfect, the recycling system has not yet been established; second is the introduction of policies for the encouragement of policies, the specific recovery requirements are not very clear, in the "2016-2020 new energy vehicles to promote the use of financial support policy notice" And "new energy vehicles manufacturing enterprises and product access management rules" in the power battery recycling requirements only "enterprises should assume the main responsibility for power battery recycling," "new energy vehicle manufacturers should establish a commitment to after-sales service of new energy automotive products System includes battery recycling "; Third, the lack of power battery recycling punishment mechanism, due to the size constraints, has not yet formed a recycling market, power battery recycling economy is not high, at the same time the current policy is not mandatory management, enterprise enthusiasm is not high , The urgent need to develop incentives for the implementation of battery recycling regulations, the establishment of a clear reward and punishment mechanism. Most of the lithium batteries to be recovered in the current stage have no economic value and enterprises are not enthusiastic about recycling. Yu Haijun suggested that the government may provide some supportive policies at this stage, such as tax incentives and financial subsidies. However, from a long-term perspective, it is still necessary to solve the problem through technological progress. In the future, countries should also adopt corresponding standards. Without a battery of value recovery, no production is allowed. He believes that to ensure the orderly and sustainable recovery of power battery, on the one hand to implement three yards, that is, the battery code, car VI code and recycling code, enter the national platform to ensure that the battery after retirement from the flow can be Control; on the other hand to open the information, our country is using extended producer responsibility system, most of the battery producers to produce their own scrap, scrap, have their own mode of processing, power battery recycling also exist this issue, the guarantee industry The sustainable development of the chain has had a huge impact.
At present, the state is in the process of formulating relevant management measures on the above issues. In the "Provisional Measures for the Management of Power Battery Recycling and Utilization in New Energy Vehicles (Draft for Comment)", it is the first time that automobile enterprises, battery enterprises and comprehensive utilization enterprises are not recovered as required Of the penalties, which did not require the recovery of the vehicle companies will suspend its "Road Motor Vehicle Manufacturers and Product Bulletin," the declaration of new products, the industry is expected that the management of the provisional approach is expected to be officially released by the end of December, the power battery Recycling plays a positive role.
With a large number of new energy vehicles on the market, the issue of recovery and utilization of used batteries has also caused widespread concern in the industry. Data show that the domestic power battery will reach the end of the peak around 2020, the total scrapped up to 120,000 to 170,000 tons, while in 2016 the actual recycling less than 10,000 tons. Due to the positive battery materials, electrolyte improper handling of the environment will cause huge pollution, at the same time, our country must also be through recycling to ease the serious external dependence on cobalt and other scarce metals. Therefore, the recovery of power battery will become the key to the development of new energy vehicles in China.